Women in Comparative Societies
The International Political Economy of Gender

I. What is political economy as an approach to the study of politics?  
Looks at the interaction/coincidence of political/economic power
How economic interests shape politics, determine domestic and international policies

Gender and International Political Economy
How is international political economy affected by women's (lack of) participation?

G-7 1983            Afghan women at loya jirga

How do scholars understandings of gender, gender/race/class affect what we know about how the global economy and how global politics function?

II.  Cynthia Enloe's Bananas, Beaches, and Bases:  Making Feminist Sense of International Politics

Gendered nature of international political economy has generally been invisible to scholars, the public

Enloe argues this has distorted our understanding of IPE

**Her central premise:  Gender makes the world go round. 
We have to see ideas about femininity AND masculinity as political not just “cultural”
– otherwise, we stay ignorant of how political our own lives are and we stay globally naïve

How does making women/gender central to our study of IPE change our analysis?

What kinds of trends, phenomenon, development strategies do we notice if we make gender central?

In global politics?

What roles are women playing in the global economy? 

Issues of Interest:

1. Banana Industry
Bananas              Carmen Miranda    Woman banana packer

Information on the Banana Industry

2. The Anti-Sweatshop Movement
WHY do women comprise 80% of global sweatshop workforce?
Enloe argues that whole structure of the industry (from payrates to who does what) prefaced on notions of “dutiful daughters” and other gender stereotypes, customs, traditions

Women in Textile Factory    anti-Walmart woman protester
Common Threads
No-Sweat Link

3.  Tourism, Sex Tourism, Trafficking in Women 

Tahiti poster         

Thai tourism

Thai sex tourism

Philippine sex tourism

Russian travel "dating"

Why are women and girls the majority of people trafficked? Who profits? Who turns a blind eye? 
How does Enloe answer these questions (briefly) in the preface?

3 mln people per yr – esp. vulnerable, Kosovar, Albanian, Rumanian, Russian, Thai, Dominican

III.  Preface to 1989 edition

Pocahontas and Carmen Miranda – their lives and legends as emblematic of political struggles of their day

Pocahontas – an intermediatry between Colonizing British and her people in the New World;  her trek to UK as emblematic of civilizing influence of British on native peoples
Ends up in British cemetery – with “civilization’s coal dust in her lungs”

More on Miranda later

Women as missing dimension of international political economy
Women-as-consumers as global political actors

IV.  Chpt 1 Gender makes the world go round
If we employed conventional techniques of analyzing world politics, women are invisible

Photos of men doing politics – not until we have Thatcher in the picture that we even notice that they are all men

key points:
**international political economy supported by specific gender roles, occupational segregation;
**Int’l politics are built around idealized notions of masculinity and femininity
**these can be changed;  this is potentially liberating for men as well as women

Tourism – how is one’s decision to vacation in Jamaica political?
What are the invisible gender dimensions to the tourist trade mentioned here?
Note also the sexual tension between colonized, colonizer.

International politics and economics – depend on women rising to the occasion – being the self-sacrificial superwoman, supermom - doing without her man for months at a time while he’s working in migrant labor or doing his patriotic duties in military, espionage, foreign service

Iran/Contra example – Ollie North as the conventional male “patriot”
Fawn Hall as the blonde bombshell assistant; Betsey North as the dutiful, self-sacrificial wife;   kept from knowing secrets of the husbands jobs but expecting to back them to the hilt if they get into trouble over any of it – no 1questions asked

Throughout this chapter and the rest of the book we are walking a tight rope between women as victims
women as political agents
women as complicitous in colonialism, globalization, etc.