Women in Comparative Societies
Intro to Gender Regimes

Gender Regime:  the beliefs, customs, social structures, laws and institutions that structure women (and men’s) participation in civil society, the economy and the state (Brunell, 2008) 

Civil Society

The Individual

The Family

Clan, Tribe, Ethnic Group

Organized Civil Society:


Nongovernmental Organizations

Interest Groups, Unions


Nonprofit Organizations

Voluntary Groups

Community-based Organizations

      Social Movement Organizations

Social Movements




      Household, off the books, under the table


      Businesses, on the books



Local and Regional Governments


National Governments


Gender Regimes are shaped by:

Religious and cultural beliefs and teachings

Cultural custom/traditions


Development/wealth of given society

Political rules, laws and institutions


Civil Society:  Other Things to Consider

Women’s political struggle

Family/Intimate Relationships

Expected gender roles, norms

Women’s responsibility for the private sphere

Raising children

Providing for men’s needs


Economy:  Other Things to Consider

GR is shaped by level of development

Particular public/private distinction

% women employed for wages

Degree of occupational segregation

Gender pay gap

Glass ceiling

Support making it possible for women to attend to both public and private responsibilities


Politics:  Other Things to Consider

Formal barriers to women’s participation

Socio-structural barriers to women’s participation

Do women in formal politics make a difference?

Women in voluntary sector , community politics, social movements,